From: Steffen Zschaler <*sz9_at_inf.tu-dresden.de*>

Date: Wed, 17 May 2006 10:11:50 +0200

Message-ID: <446ADAC6.4070902@inf.tu-dresden.de>

Date: Wed, 17 May 2006 10:11:50 +0200

Message-ID: <446ADAC6.4070902@inf.tu-dresden.de>

Hi, That's a very good question indeed. I think, what you are saying is that the 'inv' context is not well chosen for this kind of constraint, because it always has the implicit all-quantification. However, historically, the OCL specification really only talks about syntax and semantics. Pragmatics is covered in Chapt. 12 "The Use of OCL Expressions in UML Models", but at least to my understanding, this was never meant to be an exhaustive listing. So, I guess you could define a new 'context' in a manner very similar to that of Chapt. 12. You could make the contextualClassifier undefined, which would essentially forbid the use of 'self' in the OCL expression. And you could define that there is no implicit all-quantification. Best regards, Steffen Frédéric FONDEMENT wrote: > Hello all, > > Just a naive question (and the start point for another interesting > debate ?) > > If Ajaree places in his MODEL > > context A > inv testExistence: A::allInstances()->notEmpty() --or anything equivalent > > I guess this will not solve his very first problem which is: there > must have an element of kind A in his model. > Indeed, the previous expression is equivalent to the "contextless" > expression. > > A::allInstances()->forAll(A::allInstances()->notEmpty()) > > > That means if there is no instance of A in the model, then the > expression testExistence is never evaluated, so it cannot trigger any > problem. If there are n instances of A, then, the expression > testExistence is evaluated n times to false, which is not that necessary. > > Now, if he places in his metamodel > > context ModelElement -- context A would be an error here since A is > not part of the meta-metamodel which is MOF > inv testExistenceMMa: A::allInstances()->notEmpty() > > Will A really be identified with the model element whose name is A ??? > I guess no. Then, let Ajaree write > > context ModelElement > inv testEcistenceMMb: self.qualifiedName = "PathForA::A" implies > self.allInstances()->notEmpty() -- not that elegant, is it ? > > Now, it should solve Ajaree's problem, but again, there is a problem > of evaluation. If evaluated on a model, then the expression will be > considered as ill-formed (ModelElement is NOT part of the metamodel). > If evaluated on the metamodel, then the expression will always return > false, because A is still not instanciated. Let's now imagine that > there are some instanciating models (only one is just a very special > case, but if one writes a metamodel, it is certainly not just to > instanciate one model), then which one to take to evaluate > allInstances(). So the expression should be evaluated on the metamodel > given one model, which is not my understanding of OCL at metamodel > level (maybe am I wrong). > > As a conclusion, I would say that there are two annoying problems in > OCL there, that I have also encountered wring my metamodels (on UML, I > use to place such expressions with the Model metaclass context). > 1 - How to place a "contextless" OCL expression. > 2 - How to place a model-level OCL expression wich is mandatory for > any model at the metamodel level. > > A::allInstances()->notEmpty() is rather elegant and human-readable, > but if false to my belief because it has to have a context, and > because is should be evaluated on any model, and not the metamodel level. > > Frédéric Fondement > > PS: Ajaree's problem exists in UML: how to state in UML that there > must have one and only one Model instance ? > > > > To remove yourself from this list please mail > puml-list-request@cs.york.ac.uk > with a message containing the word "unsubscribe". -- Dipl.-Inf. Steffen Zschaler Research Assistant Technische Universität Dresden Department of Computer Science Phone +49 351 463 38555 Fax +49 351 463 38459 Email Steffen.Zschaler@tu-dresden.de WWW http://www.steffen-zschaler.de.vu/Received on Wed 17 May 2006 - 09:11:54 BST