C2D2 (Wellcome Trust ISSF): July -- Sept 2012
PI: Fiona Polack
CoI: Norman Maitland
CoI: Susan Stepney
Computer simulation can be used to complement purely biological approaches to explore dynamically the complex nature of cell division and differentiation. Collaborative simulation requires biological expertise and data, allied to software engineering expertise.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-malignant expansion of the prostate with no known cause, is the major chronic disease of the ageing male population. The most common treatments are surgery to relieve restriction of urine flow, or use of androgen response drugs. Unexpectedly, in our cancer studies, we have shown that BPH may result from persistent expansion of stem cells.
A short collaborative project between the CRU and YCCSA software engineers already prototyped a state-of-the-art simulator that models biological understanding of prostate epithelial cell division and differentiation in prostate cancer neogenesis. To support BPH research, we will adapt the epithelial cell simulator, to include the stromal cell dynamics implicated in BPH.
Adding stromal cells will give a basis for further simulator development to support cell dynamics simulation in the wider domain. The clinical implications of the study will be the ability to simulate the effects on cell dynamics of new BPH drug treatments, in advance of or in parallel with clinical trials.
Syngenta: Oct 2011 -- Apr 2012
PI: Jon Timmis
RA: Adam Nellis
Bird species are under threat from the competing need for food production in agriculture. Making effective use of farmland to promote diversity of bird species is a challenging problem but could have a major effect on sustaining bird populations. In order to improve bird populations, there are many conflicting issues that need to be traded against each other, such as the number of birds in an area that could maximally be obtained, against the amount and type of uncropped land in a field.
This project is developing an automated approach that integrates bird species data with the latest scientific evidence about the efficacy of different land management options as employed by the European Commission. This enables any farmer to identify a portfolio of land-use options that are appropriate for their particular situation, and to back up these recommendations with scientific evidence.
EPSRC grant EP/E053505/1 : Kent, York (CS/Electronics/Chemistry) : Oct 2007 -- Mar 2012
PI: Susan Stepney
CIs: Fiona Polack, Jon Timmis, Andy Tyrrell
RA: Paul Andrews
RSs: Teodor Ghetiu, Tim Hoverd, Antonio Gomez Zamorano, Jenny Owen
This work builds capacity in generic modelling tools and simulation techniques for complex systems, to support the modelling, analysis and prediction of complex systems, and to help design and validate complex systems. Drawing on our state-of-the-art expertise in many aspects of computer systems engineering, we will develop CoSMoS, a modelling and simulation process and infrastructure specifically designed to allow complex systems to be explored, analysed, and designed within a uniform framework.The overall project involves 2 Research Associates (1 at York, 1 at Kent), and 6 Research Students (4 at York, 1 funded by Microsoft Research; 1 at Kent).
EPSRC grant EP/F031033/1 : York (CS/Electronics/Biology): Jun 2008 -- Dec 2011
PI: Susan Stepney
CIs: Tim Clarke, Peter Young
RAs: Simon Hickinbotham, Ed Clark
RSs: Adam Nellis, Mungo Pay
PLAZZMID is a novel flexible and extensible computational framework and toolset inspired by sophisticated models of complex biological evolutionary processes that occur in bacteria and in bees. The tools will be able to be used both to build and analyse testable models of biological evolutionary processes, and to build and analyse powerful novel computational metaphors and algorithms based on these more sophisticated biological models. Within the research project, the tools will be used in a series of theoretical biological experiments on the relationship between genome structure and evolvability, and used to evolve computational systems exhibiting complex homeostatic control in a changing environment.
EPSRC grant EP/D050618/1 : King’s College London, York, Birmingham : June 2006 -- Dec 2011
PI: John A Clark
CI: Iain BateCurrent software engineering practice is a human-led search for solutions which meet needs and constraints under limited resources. Often there will be conflict, both between and within functional and non-functional criteria. Naturally, like other engineers, we search for a near optimal solution. As systems get bigger, more distributed, more dynamic and more critical, this labour-intensive search will hit fundamental limits. We will not be able to continue to develop, operate and maintain systems in the traditional way, without automating or partly automating the search for near optimal solutions.
Automated search based solutions have a track record of success in other engineering disciplines, characterised by a large number of potential solutions, where there are many complex, competing and conflicting constraints and where construction of a perfect solution is either impossible or impractical. The EPSRC SEMINAL network demonstrated that these techniques provide robust, cost-effective and high quality solutions for several problems in software engineering. Successes to date can be seen as strong pointers to search having great potential to serve as an overarching solution paradigm.
SEBASE aims to provide a new approach to the way in which software engineering is understood and practised. It will move software engineering problems from human-based search to machine-based search. As a result, human effort will move up the abstraction chain, to focus on guiding the automated search, rather than performing it. This project will address key issues in software engineering, including scalability, robustness, reliability and stability. It will also study theoretical foundations of search algorithms and apply the insights gained to develop more effective and efficient search algorithms for large and complex software engineering problems. Such insights will have a major impact on the search algorithm community as well as the software engineering community.The overall project involves 6 Research Associates, 6 Research Students and a dedicated Programme Manager. At York the work is a collaboration between the Non-Standard Computation and Real-Time Systems groups.
York (CS/Electronics), Kent, NCR : Oct 2005 -- Oct 2011
PI: Jon Timmis
There is currently an increased awareness within the public about the potential of fraud in financial services, especially with the well publicised ATM fraud attacks. This has lead to an increased requirement for additional sensing in the ATM to detect these types of attack. This requires intelligence to be built into the system to allow more efficient processing of the new complex data that is available in the ATM. The intelligence uses "sensor fusion" to amalgamate the data and process it to produce more accurate alarm messages to the ATM network control system. This project aims to provide the intelligence for the processing of the sensor data allowing the raw data to be converting into more accurate and complete alarm messages that can be passed into the management and fraud detection systems.
EPSRC grant EP/F062192/1 : York (Electronics/CS), UWE : Oct 2008 -- Sept 2011
PI: Andy Tyrrell
CIs: Gianluca Tempesti, Jon Timmis
RA: Jerry Liu
RS: Omer Qadir
The objective of this research is to evaluate and apply novel, biologically inspired, processes and algorithms for building reliable VLSI systems on silicon that possess self-diagnostic and self-healing properties. Inspired by nature, our research will adapt properties of biological systems, such as their multi-cellular organisation and evolutionary development, to create efficient electronic systems. It will also apply biological processes and the characteristics of both the innate and the acquired immune system to help solve the reliability and fault tolerant issues of artificial systems at cell, tissue (subsystem) and also at organism (system) levels. Our research will aim to pave the way for a biologically inspired unique design approach for electronics systems across a wide range of applications; from communication, through computing and control, to systems operating in hostile environments.
EPSRC grant EP/F005881/1 : York, Newcastle, Glasgow : May 2008 -- Apr 2011
PI: Sam Braunstein
Quantum computation is based on computers which operate on the level of quantum mechanics rather than classical electronics. The advantage of this is that in quantum mechanics entities can be simultaneously in many different positions at once: and this allows states of a quantum computer to behave in some ways like a stack of parallel states. This parallel stack does not unfortunately come without strings and, because of the physics of quantum mechanics, it is very difficult to find out what is in any such stack at a particular time: so reading the output of a quantum computer is not easy. Some powerful quantum algorithms have been developed: for example by Shor to factor integers much faster than convential algorithms can. However the number of such algorithms that we know is not growing very rapidly. One reason for this is that we do not have a systematic understanding of how to build up quantum computing algorithms and indeed do not have a comprehensive library of algorithms for very basic functions and procedures for building from them. The main aims of this project are to construct such a systematic foundation for quantum computation and to establish procedures for basic processes. We shall test our success in these objectives by attempting to construct algorithms for problems which arise in group theory. This area of mathematics provides an endless array of algorithmic problems at all levels of difficulty, so is a good test bed for a potential computation system. We shall also consider how to extend the analysis of cryptographic systems from classical schemes to quantum schemes. In particular this is expected to allow us to build an automated voting process which cannot be tampered with or broken into by the people who run it.The overall project involves 1 Research Associate (at York), and 1 Research Student (at Newcastle).
EPSRC grant EP/F00334X/1 : York (CS: RTS/NSC groups) : Oct 2007 -- Mar 2011
PI: Iain Bate
CIs: John A Clark, Dimitar Kazakov
Reasoning about the timing properties of many modern systems is crucial. Examples include anti-lock braking systems, air traffic control systems, and even medical applications such as X-ray dosage delivery equipment. Reasoning about response times of such systems has been the subject of much research. In particular, a great deal of scheduling theory has been developed to provide bounds on worst-case response times. Such work assumes the timing properties of individual components in the system are well understood. In particular, the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) for an individual task is an input to all forms of real-time scheduling theory. The derivation of such WCETs therefore underpins our efforts to guarantee response times in critical systems. The real-time systems community recognizes this as a major challenge.
Several researchers have identified measurement-based approaches as a promising candidate to cope with modern-day engineering demands. However, relying only on measurements to infer WCET bounds in a black box approach is regarded as unsound by most researchers. We need information to reason effectively about WCETs, but this is not readily available. Measurements however, can be taken freely. The weakness of measurement is ensuring the results are safe. Thus, rather than directly inferring bounds on WCETs from execution trace timings, why not use the measurements to infer a model of the underlying system that can form an input into further WCET calculations? Our proposal addresses this very question. Since the problem is in essence a learning problem, we propose to investigate how well leading edge machine learning approaches can be adopted or adapted to this end.
EPSRC grant EP/F032749/1 : York (Biology/Maths/CS/Electronics/Chemistry): Jan 2008 -- Jan 2011
PI: Leo Caves
CIs: Gustav Delius, Angelika Sebald, Susan Stepney, Jon Timmis, Jamie Wood
At the University of York we are identifying mutual/synergistic research interests across disciplines. We are now taking the next step and moving towards collaborative cross-disciplinary research. TRANSIT (TRANSition from Interdisciplinarity to Transdiciplinarity) is a bridging programme to nurture this nascent collaborative research culture. The TRANSIT programme provides the resources to promote staff awareness and interaction through a range of physical and virtual fora. At the heart of TRANSIT we provide the time, space and support for the creative thinking and collaboration necessary for the generation and evaluation of novel cross-disciplinary concepts and ideas. To then develop these ideas, TRANSIT provides resources to fund short, focussed feasibility studies, with the aim of generating the proof of principle and initial results, leading towards the submission of competitive research proposals. The goal is to promote further interdisciplinarity at York, and to move towards the development of a true collaborative transdisciplinary research culture.
EPSRC grant EP/E028128/1 : York (CS/Psychology) : Sept 2007 -- July 2010
PI: John A Clark
Criminal use of the national network infrastructure is commonplace: blackmail, and phishing (social engineering) alone are significant in economic terms. These activities exploit network hosts that have been previously subverted, by attacks that are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are unable to detect new or subtle attacks, and deploying IDS sensors in higher volumes results in high report volumes, but little more effectiveness. This project will show that by taking a system design approach to the choice and configuration of sensors, together with network deployment strategies that allow flexible sensor placement, it is possible to substantially improve the detection of subtle attacks. This work does not focus on improvements to individual intrusion detection components; but rather exploits the synergy that can be obtained by combining the strengths of different types of sensor, in a holistic approach to intrusion management design.
Leverhulme Trust grant: CS/Chemistry : Jul 2009 -- Jun 2010
PI: Susan Stepney
CIs: Angelika Sebald, John A Clark
RA: Matthias Bechmann
This work forms part of a wider programme of Material Computation with Structure and Dynamics: researching the properties of novel material substrates from a computational perspective.
The substrate at the basis of this work is nuclear spins as manipulated by magnetic and radio frequency fields in the area of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Materials manipulated in this way have complex structure and dynamics in terms of the interacting nuclear spin states; the manipulations and measurements can be done with commercial spectrometers, including those in our Chemistry department. There is a wide range of complexity available (e.g. multiple spin species present; interactions amongst spins by dipolar coupling; anisotropic properties), and essentially unlimited complexity of manipulations via pulse and gradient switching sequences. So we have a highly controllable, complex, well defined system at our disposal, which may be analysed in computational terms. (Note: this is not the same as the existing field of NMR quantum computing, which exploits spin entanglement in single molecules or in isolated clusters of coupled nuclear spins, rather we are investigating the complex computational properties of bulk matter.)
We will calibrate the use of nuclear spins to encode classical bits, and the use of (localised) liquid-state NMR spectroscopy to do massively parallel computation. We will test that we can discover phase space structure, and how it varies with parameter values, for example by using techniques for reconstructing the attractor. Our aim here is to assess whether it is feasible to build a dynamical model and use it as the basis of a novel computational paradigm.
NERC grant NE/E016111/1 : York (Biology/CS) : July 2007 -- June 2010
PI: Dan Franks
This project will develop computational models in order to develop a methodology for sampling animal social networks. Understanding the complex structures of animal social networks is essential to studies of social behaviour. Social structure has wide ecological and evolutionary implications for important ecological processes such as mate choice, social learning, cooperation, foraging, and disease transmission. It is therefore crucial that scientists use the appropriate tools and methods to study the properties of animal social networks. Despite the wide applicability and high profile of social network research in ecology, there is no established quantitative methodology to guide researchers in efficient and unbiased sampling of social networks. Ecologists attempt to capture network properties by recording observations of a select sample of animals and their social interactions. Their aim is to understand properties of the real network by constructing a sample network whose structure represents that of the real network. Then the sample network is analyzed using network theory. The assumption is that the sample network is structurally equivalent to the real network. For the scientific investigation to be valid and useful, this assumption must be met. This presents a problem: how can we be confident that the sampled animal network reliably represents the real-world network? If the sample network does not reliably represent the real network, then any conclusions inferred about the social behaviour occurring on the real network might be wrong. This project will use complex computational models of networks to answer these questions.
EU FP6 STREP grant : funding Dr Peter Hines : Jan 2007 -- Jun 2010
We aim to address a range of key structural issues in quantum informatics. We want to provide answers to fundamental questions on the nature of quantum informatics which should provide a deeper understanding of the quantum informatics endeavor as a whole, and guide further developments.
- What are the precise structural relationships between parallelism, entanglement and mixedness as quantum informatic resources? Or, more generally, which features of quantum mechanics account for differences in computational and informatic power as compared to classical computation?
- How do quantum and classical information interact with each other, and with a spatio-temporal causal structure?
- Which quantum control features (e.g., iteration) are possible and what additional computational power can they provide?
- What is the precise logical status and axiomatics of (No-)Cloning and (No-)Deleting, and more generally, of the quantum mechanical formalism as a whole?
EPSRC grant EP/D051819/1 : York (CS/Psychology) : Aug 2006 -- Jan 2010
PI: John A Clark
CIs: Rainer Banse, Jeremy JacobThis project investigates phishing attacks, attempting to extract features of attempted cons. We do this using our security expertise and experience, informed by methodical empirical surveys carried out by an experienced psychology researcher.
Fraud has been with us since time immemorial. With the rise of cyberspace opportunities for fraud abound. Recent years has seen a dramatic increase in what have become known as 'phishing' attacks. The most obvious means is via email. You might receive an email purporting to be from a familiar organisation, e.g. your bank, indicating that some information they maintain on you is inaccurate. You are requested to click on a link that takes you to a web page where you are requested to enter confidential information, such as your account number and on-line banking password details (and other confidential information). The message might also threaten to suspend you account if you do not do so. The messages and web site look authentic, but they are not. If you have responded as requested then your confidential details are now in the hands of a frauster. What you expected to be the result of your actions is not the actual result -- though it may be a while (too late) before you realise this. Your model of the world is at odds with reality. But by scrutinising the email carefully can we deduce that it is likely to be a phishing attack?
If we can formalise these features then we can attempt to automatically detect phishing attacks. The benefits of doing so are obvious. Phishing attacks may be short lived; they need only to persuade a few unfortunate naive people to fall for the con to have succeeded. We need to identify phishing attacks at the earliest opportunity. We aim to develop prototype tool support to determine the degree to which we can actually detect phishing attacks automatically and test it out initially in a campus environment (where user sophistication varies hugely).
ESRC grant RES-035-25-0064 : York (Management/CS/Electronics): Jan 2008 -- Dec 2009
PI: Kiran Jude Fernandes
CIs: Susan Stepney, Jon Timmis
The terms complex systems and complexity are used very broadly across an ever expanding set of social sciences, ranging across economics, management, sociology and education. In the last few years, robust and well-proven quantitative methods and models have been developed to describe and analyse complex systems. However, these methods are often not known in any depth to social scientists intending to study complex systems. This is a serious limitation, which may prevent the researcher from reaching beyond a purely quantitative description and analysis. We therefore propose, as part of a two year project, a two-level course aimed at building capacity in complex systems and complexity theory within the social science community. This course will be build upon York Centre for Complex Systems Analysis’ (YCCSA) established research, consultancy and teaching.
EPSRC grant EP/E005187/1 : York (CS/Electronics) : July 2006 -- Sept 2009
PI: Jon Timmis
CI: Andy Tyrrell
Many electronic systems would benefit from the inclusion of self-regulatory mechanisms. Imagine an engineered system that can ‘predict’, or be aware of, imminent threats to its specified operation, and then, based on this prediction, alter its operation or configuration to circumvent the effects of the threat. Biological systems perform equivalent feats of self-regulation; a mammal for example can cope very well with a certain level of damage being inflicted upon it, and still continue its operation. How is this possible? This project presents a way forward in electronic engineering which represents an opportunity for engineered systems to break new ground in generating adaptive, autonomous and self-regulating behaviour. The focus of the research is on one of the most impressive abilities of living organisms: their ability to ensure a reasonably stable internal state despite wildly changing external environmental factors. This property, often termed homeostasis, is a major contributor to an organism’s autonomy and we feel future engineered systems.
The project aim is to develop an architecture that endows electronic systems with the ability to self-regulate their physical and operational state within highly dynamic environments.
EPSRC grant EP/D501377/1 : Kent, York (CS/Electronics), Oxford Jenner Institute : Feb 2006 -- Nov 2008
The aim of this multidisciplinary research project is to develop a novel, immunologically grounded, computational system that is capable of hierarchical classification and to apply that system to a hierarchical classification of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily.
York Complexity pump-priming grant : CS/Electronics/Biology : May 2006 -- July 2007
This interdisciplinary project between the Departments of Computer Science and Electronics (with assistance as necessary from Biology) is developing an evolutionary platform based on analogue circuitry that has self-regulatory aspects and behavioural characteristics similar to those found in gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Implementing GRNs as analogue devices that can directly affect their GRN representation via their electronic output has the potential to allow the behaviour of biological GRNs to be investigated in real time. This work involves intrinsic evolution on suitable analogue platforms that can be dynamically refigured as the circuits respond to external conditions. The project focuses on:
- evolving analogue circuits that can be dynamically reconfigured as external conditions change
- permitting device output to feedback into the circuit's genome, thus affecting GRN control behaviour and the behavioural basis on which genes are selected
York Complexity pump-priming grant : CS/Electronics : May 2006 -- July 2007
Software controlling physical devices (from robots to unclocked FPGAs) does not seem to be very portable. For example, neural network controllers "trained" on one device (or simulation of a device) do not work as well when moved to another, supposedly "identical", device. This appears to be because the training process allows the software to exploit physical (extra-logical) properties of the device, and these properties vary between devices. Simulations further fail to incorporate the effect of noise and variations between devices. This is of concern, because it implies it will be very difficult to mass produce intelligent embodied devices, if each has to be individually trained.
Our long term research vision is a full understanding and exploitation of embodied computation, including the discovery of how features of biological organisms that result in robustness can be incorporated into such devices, and can ease the portability problem. To prime the research needed to establish this vision, we are performing preliminary experiments to determine the size and cause of the variations.
EPRSC grant EP/D076420/1 : York : Jun 2006 -- May 2007
PI: Susan Stepney
CIs: Fiona Polack, Jon Timmis
The International Conference on Unconventional Computation (formerly called Unconventional Models of Computation) solicits original contributions in all areas of unconventional computation, including theory, experiments, and applications. Typical topics are: natural computing including quantum, cellular, molecular, neural and evolutionary computing; chaos and dynamical systems based computing; and proposals for computations that go beyond the Turing model.
UC'06 was hosted in York. EPSRC funded the Invited Speakers' expenses. The White Rose Consortium sponsorship and the University of York funded the facilities. Microsoft Research sponsorship funded student travel bursaries.
EPSRC grant EP/D500354/1 : York (CS/Maths) : Sept 2005 -- Sept 2006
(funding visiting Prof Shasanka Roy)
PI: Sam Braunstein
CI: Tony Sudbery
In the world of the very small, nothing seems to make sense. Small objects made up of electrons, photons or atoms, which obey the laws of quantum mechanics, present us with puzzles like the puzzle of fully describing an everyday three-dimensional object, given outlines of it seen from three different directions. We get "outlines" of a quantum object by making different measurements on the object, when we cannot make all the measurements simultaneously. Sometimes there is no way in which these outlines will fit together to give a single description of the object. This is a well-known peculiarity of quantum objects (pointed out by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen, and by Bell) and forces us to use an unfamiliar mathematical description in order to make sense of them. In this description it is still possible to think about the different outlines of an object, and to ask if a set of outlines will fit together (but now, if the outlines do not fit together, we believe that an object with those outlines cannot exist). Investigating just which quantum outlines will fit together has only just started; we want to continue this investigation. This will enable us to devise tests to check whether small objects in the real world do actually have the kinds of properties that the mathematical theory requires, to find where they most depart from "making sense" according to our usual ideas, and to look for ways of using these departures from common sense in quantum computing and quantum communication.
EPRSC grant EP/C516966/1 : York, Kent, Surrey : Jan 2005 -- Jan 2007
PI: Susan Stepney
CIs: Ana Cavalcanti, Fiona Polack, Jim Woodcock
Nanites are novel devices that operate on the nanoscopic level to cause macroscopic effects; nanotech assemblers are nanites that build artefacts. TUNA is a feasibility study into the work needed to develop networks of nanites that behave safely.
IRC grant : funding Dr Peter Hines : 2004 -- 2006
The practical case for building a quantum computer is based on a small number of known recipes (known as algorithms) for processing information. We know that these out-perform the ordinary (classical) algorithms by such an enormous factor that the a quantum computer would be more than worthwhile. But the number of good known algorithms is quite small; this project will address one of the obstacles in the way of constructing new ones, namely the difficulty in constructing recursive functions (functions that in turn invoke themselves).
EPSRC grant GR/S56252/01 : funding Dr Sibasish Ghosh : April 2004 -- June 2006
PI: Sam Braunstein
Quantum information processing offers the promise of new technologies that can manipulate light and matter directly at the quantum level. Within the next few years it is expected that small scale quantum information processors will be developed and applications to exploit them will be required. Many of these technologies will rely on entanglement for their improvement. Entanglement involves correlations between subsystems that cannot be explained by classical correlations between each subsystem. It enables a more efficient use of physical resources than classical physics allows. One potential application outside the communication and computation arena are precision measurements. The aim of this project is to develop new practical schemes for high precision measurements in optics and electronics using quantum entanglment which could utilise small scale quantum information processing devices. This project will result in new classes of high precision measurements.
EPRSC grant GR/S56627/02 : York (CS/Electronics), Kent, Aberystwyth, Napier, Nottingham, UCL, NCR, BAE SYSTEMS : Nov 2003 -- Dec 2006
PI: Jon Timmis
The field of Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) is a new and exciting area of research, whose implications to the design and implementations of systems in the future are manifold. This is not limited to the obvious virus detection in computer systems, but could extend from fault-tolerant hardware design to machine learning. However, to allow this new area to develop and for the UK to continue to lead the world in such activities, a more structured approach is needed to co-ordinate and support researchers in this area. This network is designed to help bolster these researchers in the UK, stimulate and extend the community of AIS practitioners within the UK and provide the necessary infrastructure and financial support for them to pursue further interactions between themselves and international collaborators, in order to drive forward this area of research.
EPSRC grant GR/S63823/01 : Novel Computation Research Cluster : York, BAE Systems, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Imperial, Kent, Manchester, Qinetiq, Sunderland, UCL, UMIST, UWE : July -- Dec 2003
PI: Susan Stepney
Examining nature inspired computation (biological, chemical, and physical) and self organised criticality (systems that maintain themselves in the computationally interesting dynamical state at "the edge of chaos")
EPSRC grant GR/S09036/01 : funding visiting Prof Regine Laleau : June 2003 -- June 2006
PI: Fiona Polack
One of a range of activities on the fringes of conventional modelling, including various metamodelling and rigorous approaches that will form the bases for techniques for emergent systems engineering.